Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://er.chdtu.edu.ua/handle/ChSTU/1643
Title: Аналіз розвитку неоконсерватизму на прикладі рейганоміки
Other Titles: Analysis of the development of neoconservatism on the example of Reaganomics
Authors: Манн, Руслан Володимирович
Баранов, Г.О.
Keywords: рейганоміка;неоконсерватизм;економіка;економічна теорія;Reaganomics;neoconservatism;economy;economic theory
Issue Date: 2020
Publisher: Збірник наукових праць Черкаського державного технологічного університету. Серія: Економічні науки
Abstract: На основі аналізу основних аспектів розвитку неоконсерватизму, економічної політики американського уряду Рональда Рейгана досліджено застосування економічної практики з метою використання її в розбудові економіки країни, а також для розкриття особистості Рональда Рейгана. Варто звернути увагу на те, що на сьогоднішній день мало досліджень з цієї проблематики, а поодинокі дослідження не повною мірою відображають вплив рейганоміки на історію США і світу в цілому. У США в 1980-х роках політика обмеження державного втручання в підприємницьку діяльність запровадила комплекс заходів, які були спрямовані на якісну зміну стратегії завдяки перерозподілу функцій регулювання між державою і бізнесом, послаблення бюрократії і зростання економічної свободи підприємців. Для цього було зменшено та скасовано деякі правила, які застосовувалися до виробничої та ринкової діяльності, наприклад, контроль над цінами на нафту, за рівнем мінімальної заробітної плати, послаблено екологічні стандарти, скорочено бюрократичний апарат і зменшено витрати на його утримання. Основним напрямом кредитно-грошової політики США в цей період було обрано антиінфляційне регулювання грошової маси з метою стримування інфляції. В 1990-х роках течії американського консерватизму не мали об’єктивного фундаменту для подальшого розвитку, але ці процеси не зруйнували неоконсерватизм. Аналіз і узагальнення інформації показали, що неоконсерватори стали більш виваженими в методах політичної боротьби, розширили програму і, як наслідок, інтегрувалися в республіканську партію, а трансформаційні процеси створили умови для розвитку неоконсерватизму в умовах сьогодення.
Based on the analysis of historical aspects of the development of neoconservatism, the economic policy of the US government of Ronald Reagan, the application of economic practice in order to use it in the development of the economy of the country, as well as to reveal the personality of Ronald Reagan is studied. It should be noted that today there are few studies on this issue, and some studies do not fully reflect the impact of Reaganomics on the history of the United States, Ukraine, and the world as a whole. The urgency of the work is the need to study and engage economic, political, social methods and features in the management of the economy. The historiography of problems has been investigated and it has been proved that scientists, highly skilled specialists and reformers in the field of economics worked on some aspects of the creation and implementation of Reaganomics. Such experts and politicians as R. Reagan, M. Fridman, Yu. Panchenko, F. Hayek et al. made a significant contribution to the study of this problem. V. Sogrin conducted a significant study of the foundations of US political history. The works of V. Sogrin substantiate the periodization of US political history, taking into account the influence of the concept of neoconservation. Historical and political aspects of the formation and development of neoconservation in the United States are revealed in the writings of A. Blum and L. Kharts. In the 1970s and 1980s, a gradual renewal of the conservative concept (neoconservation) took place, that was associated with a new stage in the emergence of political processes, which was clearly reflected, for example, in the United States. Neoconservation is called the modern political trend, which orients the values of conservatism into a post-industrial society, and predicts government policy and the course of leading countries of the world since the 1970s. The purpose of neoconservation is to stimulate market relations and entrepreneurship. Neoconservation began to form after the revolutionary upheavals of the early twentieth century, and its formation took place after the Second World War. The process of restructuring the state regulation system was one of the important features of the economy of the capitalist countries of the 1980s and 1990s. For example, in the USA in the 1980s there were destabilizing processes that combined cyclical and structural crises in the state, stagflation (rising inflation and falling rates of economic growth) with the tensions of international relations and financial problems. This was preceded by economic, social and political problems of the 1960s–1970s in the US (arms race, Vietnam war, etc.). Among the factors that significantly influenced the formation of neoconservatism were: public reaction to the 1960s movement, namely: youth and women's movement for the expansion of civil rights, sexual revolution, activities and views of the leaders of neoconservatism. At the forefront, neoconservative government of the United States set the task of rational approach and increase in the efficiency of production, change of its structure and technology, increase of investment. The introduction of new technologies required the accumulation of significant investment resources and investment in priority sectors. The main ideas of the neoconservatives are practiced in the leading countries in the 1980s with minor changes in the methods of their implementation. The main directions of state regulation of the economy were the following: stimulation of the aggregate supply, control over the dynamics of money to reduce inflation, purchase of state-owned objects (enterprises, bonds, etc.), reduction of administrative and legal constraints on economic activities, change of state policy regarding social programs, growth of state incentives research work. That is, the main goal of the reorientation of state regulation consisted in the reduction of state interference in the economy and monetary regulation. The nonconservative theory defined the conceptual basis of economic policy of R. Reagan's government in 1981–1988 and was named "Reaganomics." This policy was characterized by such features as protection of free market, budget balance, tax reduction to encourage entrepreneurial activities. At the same time, the government has made a decision to stimulate the investment climate, reduce inflation and increase the competitiveness of the state in the international arena. In the early 1990s there was a fall in the social neoconservatism movement, as social conservatives were disappointed with the ability of the republican party to meet social demands. After the end of the Cold War with the Soviet Union, the course of American conservatism did not have an objective basis for further development. But these processes complicated neoconservatism, and did not destroyed it. Neoconservatives became more sophisticated in the methods of political struggle, expanded the program and adopted the document "Contract with America". As a consequence, by the mid-1990s, neoconservatives were integrated into the Republican Party, and transformational processes created the conditions for the development of neoconservatism in the current environment. The information on historical aspects of the development of neoconservatism (on the example of Reagonomics) and the use of its achievements in economics and politics are investigated and summarized. It is determined that the results of Reagan's economic policy were a positive step towards achieving high indicators in socio-political and economic life of the USA. Economic development contributed to the successful completion of structural and technological restructuring of the economy, the dollar's stabilization and the transition to a more open type of economy. However, the task of a deficit budget was not solved, since the reduction of expenditures for social purposes did not compensate for the growth of military expenditures. Based on the analysis of historical aspects of the development of neoconservatism, economic policy of the American government, Ronald Reagan, the options for using economic practice to build economy are given
URI: https://er.chdtu.edu.ua/handle/ChSTU/1643
ISSN: 2306-4420
DOI: 10.24025/2306-4420.0.57.2020.206015
Issue: 57
First Page: 18
End Page: 25
Appears in Collections:Випуск 57

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