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|Title:||Транснаціональні корпорації у реаліях сучасного міжнародного бізнесу|
|Other Titles:||Transnational corporations in the realities of contemporary international business|
|Authors:||Пехник, Андрій Володимирович|
Присяжнюк, Юрій Іванович
|Keywords:||державне регулювання;національна безпека;зовнішньоекономічна діяльність;транснаціональні корпорації (ТНК);сталий розвиток;економічне зростання;state regulation;national security;foreign economic activity;Transnational Corporations (TNCs);sustainable development;economic growth|
|Publisher:||Збірник наукових праць Черкаського державного технологічного університету. Серія: Економічні науки|
|Abstract:||Проведено аналіз, на основі якого обґрунтовано, що, з одного боку, ТНК безперечно визначають динаміку та основні тенденції розвитку світової економіки загалом, контролюють її основні
тренди та технологічний рівень і значною мірою визначають правила гри. З іншого боку, у реаліях
сучасного міжнародного бізнесу ТНК теж не можуть не враховувати реалії та тенденції, що складаються у суспільстві, і змушені підлаштовуватися під них у своїй діяльності. Однією з основних
таких реалій є концепція сталого розвитку, аналізу впливу якої на діяльність ТНК і присвячено цю
Показано, що, що ні концепція екзогенного, ні концепція ендогенного економічного зростання
не враховують повною мірою екологічних чинників та викликів, що стоять перед сучасним суспільством. Крім того, жодна зі згаданих моделей економічного зростання не приділяла достатньої уваги
соціальним чинникам та проблемам стабільності. Тому назріла потреба формування нової, екологоекономічної моделі зростання сучасних ТНК, що поєднала б у собі здобутки природничих та суспільних наук і дозволила б задовольняти потреби сучасного суспільства, не ставлячи під загрозу здатність майбутніх поколінь задовольняти свої потреби.
Визначено, що ключовим критерієм при виборі оптимальної моделі поведінки стосовно тієї чи
іншої ТНК має бути тип ресурсів, який вона найбільше використовує у своїй діяльності. При цьому
оптимізацію державної політики стосовно ТНК найдоцільніше визначати відповідно до стратегії
експансії, яку вона використовує на українському ринку.
Ключові слова: ; ; ;
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Introduction. Nowadays TNCs undoubtedly determine the dynamics and main trends of the world economy as a whole, control its main trends and technological level and to a large extent determine the rules of the game. On the other hand, TNCs can not fail to take into account the realities and trends that are formed in society, and are forced to adapt to them in their activities. One of the main such realities is the concept of sustainable development, analysis of the impact of which on the activities of TNCs will be devoted to this article. Obviously, neither the concept of exogenous nor the concept of endogenous economic growth does not fully take into account the environmental factors and challenges faced by modern society. In addition, none of the above-mentioned models of economic growth did not pay sufficient attention to social factors and stability issues. Therefore, the emergence of a new, ecological and economic model of growth, which would combine the achievements of natural and social sciences. Analysis of used sources. In the world economic science, TNC's were researched by such scholars as S. Agarval, P. Backley, D. Bennett, G. Vaenrich, R. Vernon, S. Gaimer, J. F. Gennart, C. Gill, C. Hofer, J. Danning, D. Datta, M. Casson, R. Kewz, C.D.D., J.L., T. Moran, T. Ozava, K. Omae, H. Pitilis, M. Porter, P. Rana, R. Reich, S. Rolf, J. Rotheb, F. Rout, M. and S. Tolchin, F. Trompenaars, A. Shapiro, K. Sharp; in Ukrainian science, certain aspects of TNC's activity were studied by O. Bilorus, O. Budkin, V. Butkevich, I. Gladiy, B. Gubsky, V. Dikan, V. Kisil, V. Melnyk, A. Moky, Y. Pakhomov, K. Panchenko, A. Pekhnyk, J. Poplavskaya, O. Rogach, A. Semenov, K. Semenov, S. Sokolenko, A. Filipenko, O. Shnirkov and others. At the same time, despite the large number of researches on TNCs, some aspects of TNCs' activity in the modern international business remain insufficiently elucidated and require further analysis. The purpose of the article. To conduct the theoretical aspects and practical recommendations of regulation of TNC activities according to the concept of sustainable development. Presentation of the main material. Obviously, neither the concept of exogenous nor the concept of endogenous economic growth does not fully take into account the environmental factors and challenges faced by modern society. In addition, none of the above-mentioned models of economic growth did not pay sufficient attention to social factors and stability issues. Therefore, the emergence of the emergence of a new, ecological and economic model of growth, which would combine the achievements of natural and social sciences. Such a concept was the model of sustainable development, formulated in the late 80's and approved in Rio de Janeiro in 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development, as well as approved in the Declaration on Environment and Development «Agenda for the 21st Century» The next stage in the development of this concept was the International Conference on Financing for Development (International Conference on Financing for Development), held March 18–22, 2002 in Monterey (Mexico), where the heads of the participating countries adopted a coordinated decision on the use of tax levers, investments in economic and social infrastructure, the development of capital markets through banking systems, balanced fiscal and monetary policies, the reduction of the impact of inflation, the promotion of high standards of economic growth, full employment, the eradication of poverty and price stability. These ideas were further developed in the framework of the World Summit on Sustainable Development from 26 August to 4 September 2002, which allowed setting goals and timelines for a wide range of issues, in particular, setting target targets with the provision of sanitation, the use and production of chemical products. As a result of the summit, more than 200 partnerships were announced in various areas of sustainable development in all regions, for which significant funding was allocated. The Johannesburg Implementation Plan and the Johannesburg Declaration on Sustainable Development were adopted within the framework of the Summit. In addition, the extremely important element of the World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg was that international commitments were complemented by a series of voluntary partnership initiatives on sustainable development. The decision of the above-mentioned international meetings allowed us to proceed to the practical implementation of the decisions taken, which, in our time, with the corresponding periodic adjustment, is conducted under the guidance of the United Nations Commission on Sustainable Development. According to the UN Commission on Sustainable Development, its goal is to meet the needs of modern society without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs. Accordingly, 5 basic principles are based on the concept of sustainable development: 1) Economic development can be sustained and sustainable in order to meet the needs of the present generation, while not undermining the ability of future generations to meet their needs. 2) The restrictions that exist in the field of exploitation of natural resources are relative, they relate only to the constraints imposed by the current level of technology and social organization, as well as the ability of the biosphere to self-healing. 3) It is necessary to satisfy the basic needs of all people and to provide everyone with an opportunity of high-quality life. 4) It is necessary to reconcile the state of life of those who enjoy excessive benefits (monetary and material), with the ecological potential of the planet, in particular regarding the use of energy. 5) The size and pace of population growth should be consistent with the productive potential of the changing global ecosystem. It should be noted that this does not mean a return to Malthusianism, but it certainly requires the bringing of technologies and economic development to the level of pressing problems of mankind. Subsequently, this concept was adopted as the basis for the coordination of environmental and economic policies by governments of many states and even regional integration associations. In particular, the leaders of the European Union at the EU summit held in Göteborg in June 2001 adopted a joint strategy for sustainable development. This was the definition of the very concept of sustainable development. According to the declaration of the heads of 15 European countries, «sustainable development is in such a way as to meet the needs of the present generation of people, which would not endanger future generations». Although the strategy itself was largely declarative (in particular, the EU Commissioner for the Environment, Margot Wallström, expressed regret that the leaders of the countries «did not concentrate enough on concrete actions»), yet the EU leaders outlined a series of measures who should help build a sustainable society. In Ukraine, the Concept of Sustainable Development was approved by the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine in 1997. In addition, within the framework of the joint Ukrainian-American project «The Program for the Promotion of Sustainable Development in Ukraine», with the participation of many leading scientists of Ukraine, a «Concept of Sustainable Development of Ukraine» was developed. It defines sustainable development as «the process of building the state on the basis of harmonization and harmonization of social, economic and environmental components in order to meet the needs of present and future generations,» in which «a balanced solution to socio-economic problems, the maintenance of a favorable state of the environment and natural resource potential in order to meet the vital needs of present and future generations». At the same time, the authors of the concept especially emphasize that «the basis of sustainable development is the parity of relations in the triad» man – economy – nature. «Sustainable development combines the process of survival and reproduction of the nation's gene pool, the activation of the role of each individual in society, ensuring its rights and freedoms, preservation of the natural environment, formation of conditions for the restoration of the biosphere and its local ecosystems, orientation towards reducing the level of anthropogenic impact on the natural environment and harmonizing human development in nature.» It is also important to realize that «Ukraine can ensure the transition to sustainable development exclusively through the effective use of all kinds of resources, structural and technological modernization of production, using the creative potential of society for the building and prosperity of the state,» and also that «the definition of ways to ensure sustainable the development of the state should be based on the formulation of strategic goals of state building taking into account the realities of the present, the trends of the world community, the place and role of Ukraine in Europe and in the world». Obviously, the concept of sustainable development causes a significant, but in many respects, determinants of the impact on the whole system of modern international business. Accordingly, the development of a strategy for integration into a globalized economy is extremely important in taking into account the specifics and constraints imposed by the concept of sustainable development and the documents and criteria adopted on its basis. At the same time, the key weight takes into account the above mentioned peculiarities when regulating the activities of transnational corporations, which at the moment is definitely one of the most powerful factors in the integration of Ukraine into the system of world economic relations. There exists a fundamental possibility of harmonizing the impact of transnational corporations on the territory of Ukraine with the concept of sustainable development. The optimum for this is the use as an optimization criterion of the type of the most intensively used TNC resources and their expansion strategies applied to the relevant market. Conclusions. The analysis of the concept of sustainable development proposed by the UN and the «Concept of Sustainable Development of Ukraine» developed on its basis allows us to draw conclusions about the existence of a fundamental possibility of harmonizing the impact of transnational corporations on the territory of Ukraine with the concept of sustainable development. The optimum for this is the use as an optimization criterion of the type of the most intensively used TNC resources and their expansion strategies applied to the relevant market.
|Appears in Collections:||Випуск 51|
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